11 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil that every architect must visit
The 11 UNESCO World Heritage Sites below contain many significant values of Brazilian history, culture, and religion that any architect should learn and learn from.
1. The old town of Ouro Preto
Ouro Preto (formerly Vila Rica), founded in 1691, is the first city in Brazil to be named a UNESCO World Heritage Site (1980). The structure of the city is one of the most bizarre expressions of Brazilian colonial architecture. The religious architecture of Ouro Preto has a strong presence in the city, and is adorned with ceiling paintings, stoneware and gold details.
According to IPHAN, the city is an “artificial masterpiece” about a “unique proof of a cultural tradition.”
2. The historic center of town Olinda
With a history marked by robberies and fires from the Dutch invasion in the 17th century, Olinda’s most distinctive feature is the green landscape and the sea, which underpins landscape and architectural styles. format. Examples of 16th-century heritage, unique bricks from the 18th and 19th centuries, and neoclassical and eclectic buildings can be found from the early 20th century. Among them are: Carmo Church, burned by the Dutch but rebuilt with prototype features. The city was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982 and illustrates “important periods of the calendar.” human history. “
3. Jesuit Missions of Guaranis – Ruins of São Miguel das Missões
São Miguel Arcanjo, founded in 1687, is a mission where European priests of the Jesus Association evangelize native speakers of Brazil. Intense contact between native Brazilians and Europeans has originated a unique art activity called ‘Missionary Baroque’, blending indigenous and European aesthetics.
The relics were included in the UNESCO list in 1985. According to IPHAN, this is one of the most important Jesuit missionaries on Guarani.
4. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas
Bom Jesus Cathedral by Congonhas began construction in 1757. The construction of the cathedral formed six chapels. Bom Jesus Church by Matosinhos and altar of prophets (an area that holds sculptures) took more than a hundred years to build. Considered a masterpiece of Baroque architecture, it was built by Aleijadinho and Manoel da Costa Athayde.
It was recognized as a legacy in 1985 and is a testament to cultural traditions, and “a masterpiece of creative genius.”
5. Historic center of Salvador da Bahia
Salvador remained an important position in Brazil even after Rio de Janeiro took the title (economic center and capital city) in 1763. Designed by Luis Dias, the city’s historic urban layout was divide between Cidade Baixa (City Center, including port) and Cidade Alta (residential area, including administrative and religious centers). Its monumental architecture reached its peak in the 17th and 18th centuries due to the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque period. The symbolic buildings of the town are from this period, such as the Salvador Cathedral (formerly the Jesuit Church) and Sao Bento Church and Monastery. The historical center of Salvador da Bahia has become a heritage in 1985.
A symbol of modern Brazilian architecture, Brasíc was inaugurated on April 21, 1960, three and a half years after the construction of the city designed by Lucio Costa. Located along two intersecting axes at a right angle, Brasilia creates four well-defined urban scales (monumentality, population, community, and idyllicity). Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, buildings such as Itamaraty Palace, National Theater and Cathedral have become symbols of the capital. Brasilia was included in the World Heritage list in 1987.
7. The historical center of Sao Luís do Maranhao
Located in the northeastern region of Brazil, Sao Luís (founded in 1615) is another site occupied by the Dutch in the mid-17th century. With streets, squares and stairs, the architecture is the collection point. Main attraction of the city. Its structures are designed to keep visitors cool in a warm climate with ventilation and shade in buildings, azulejos bricks, shutters, patios and balconies. As part of UNESCO’s World Heritage list in 1997, the city is recognized as a testament to the special cultural tradition.
8. The historical center of Diamantina
Founded by the Kingdom of Portugal in 1731 to hold the diamond mining area, Diamantina is another testament to the fusion of Brazilian and European designs. Its architecture is simple: houses with white walls, vivid colors adorn doors and windows, and cobogó (pattern for blue bars on the façade) integrate with the landscape. Diamantina Historical Center became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.
9. The historic center of Goiás
Goiás was founded in 1727 by explorers from Sao Paulo. The city preserves religious traditions such as the Fogaréu procession. It has an indigenous architectural ensemble, with the advantage of single, colonial and eclectic houses. Religious architecture stands out for its simplicity, showing traces of late Baroque style, similar to the first phase of style admired by the churches of Minas Gerais. The historic center of Goiás was brought in 2001 to represent a significant exchange of human value in architectural development, urban planning, art and landscape design.
10. Modern Pampulha pants
Located in one of the most traditional areas of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), Pampulha Modern Consemble is the first cultural heritage to receive the title “Cultural Landscape of Modern Heritage”. It was designed by Oscar Niemeyer and is one of his most important works.
There are four buildings arranged around an artificial lake: the church of São Francisco de Assis, the casino (the current Pampulha Art Museum), the ballroom (currently the reference center, architecture and urban design Belo Horizonte) and Golf Yacht Club.
Located in one of the most traditional areas of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), Pampulha Modern Consemble is the first cultural heritage to receive the title “Cultural Landscape of Modern Heritage”. Designed by Oscar Niemeyer and one of his most important works, there are four buildings arranged around an artificial lake: the church of São Francisco de Assis and the casino (Pampulha Art Museum is currently at), a ballroom (currently the Belo Horizonte Center for Architecture, Urban Design and Architecture) and the Golf Yacht Club.
They were built between 1942 and 1943 and were inaugurated by the then mayor of Belo Horizonte, Juscelino Kubitschech, who, twenty years later, would become the inaugurated president of Brasilia. The quartet is completed by azulejos tiles signed by Candido Portinari and sculptures by artists like Alfredo Ceschiatti and José Alves Pedrosa, next to the gardens designed by Roberto Burle Marx. Listed in 1997, the complex received the UNESCO World Heritage title in 2016.
11. Valongo jetty archaeological area – Rio de Janeiro
The most recent Brazilian heritage listed by UNESCO, the Valongo jetty archaeological site in Rio de Janeiro, is the main port of access for African slaves across the Americas, receiving about 900,000 slaves, according to UNESCO estimates. . Dating back to 1811, the wharf was discovered by archaeologists in 2011, during the construction of Porto Maravilha. Restoration and remnants of the wharf have been displayed and are open for sightseeing on the Barão de Teté Boulevard.
The introduction as a world heritage was made in 2017 and represents recognition of its universal value as a memory of the violence against humanity represented by slavery, as well as the contribution that the African people have made to the nation’s cultural, social and economic formation.